About wills

Even if you live in Maryland, your custody case may not be decided in Maryland!

By Morgan P. Appel

A recent unreported* decision of Maryland’s intermediate appellate court shows that, although you live in Maryland, your custody case may not be decided in Maryland even if a Maryland court has the right to make the decision.

In Brooks v. Brooks, at the time of their child’s birth, the family was living in Maryland. The family later moved to Texas and, after Mom got a protective order against Dad, Mom and the child moved to California.

Dad filed in Maryland for custody. Mom asked the Court to dismiss Dad’s request for custody, which was denied by one judge. On review, another judge held a jurisdiction hearing. Dad was present at the hearing in Rockville, Maryland, but Mom was present in a Los Angeles County courtroom before a judge there. The two judges discussed the case both on and off the record.

The case turned on the judges’ interpretation of the Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act (UCCJEA), a law enacted by every state and the District of Columbia. Under Maryland’s UCCJEA, a Maryland court only has jurisdiction to hear a custody case if:

(1) Maryland is the home state of the child, or (2) Maryland was the home state of the child within 6 months before the start of the case, and the child no longer lives in Maryland, but at least one parent still does live in Maryland. The “home state” of a child is where the child has lived more than half of the time during the last 12 months. Under this standard, Maryland could have decided the Brooks case.

However, Maryland may decline to exercise jurisdiction at any time if the court determines that Maryland is an inconvenient forumand another state would be a more appropriate forum. In determining whether Maryland is an inconvenient forum, the court considers 8 factors:

(i) Whether domestic violence has occurred and is likely to continue in the future and which state could best protect the parties and the child.

(ii) The length of time the child has resided outside this State.

(iii) The distance between the court in this State and the court in the state that would assume jurisdiction.

(iv) The relative financial circumstances of the parties.

(v) Any agreement of the parties as to which state should assume jurisdiction.

(vi) The nature and location of the evidence required to resolve the pending litigation, including testimony of the child.

(vii) The ability of the court of each state to decide the issue expeditiously and the procedures necessary to present the evidence.

(viii) The familiarity of the court of each state with the facts and issues in the pending litigation.

In Brooks, the Maryland court decided that Maryland is an inconvenient forum, and gave up jurisdiction. The judge zeroed in on 3 factors: (1) the child had been living outside Maryland for more than a year when the decision was made, (2) the child is 2 years old and will not testify, and (3) the people in California with whom she lives and who provide care to her are critical in determining her best interests.

Dad appealed. The Court of Special Appeals affirmed the trial court’s decision and found that Maryland was an inconvenient forum. The Court of Special Appeals determined that the trial court properly applied the factors to the facts of this case:

(i) There was a domestic violence altercation between the parties which led Mom and the child to move to California.

(ii) At the time of the hearing, the minor child had resided outside of Maryland for almost an entire year.

(iii) The distance between California and Maryland is 2,620 miles.

(iv) Both parties were gainfully employed and Mom was not in a superior financial position over Dad.

(v) There was no agreement between the parties on which state should assume jurisdiction.

(vi) Mom’s mother (the child’s grandmother), her pediatrician, maternal extended family, play dates, church/bible school, and swimming classes were all in California.

(vii) Both jurisdictions could decide the issue expeditiously.

(viii) Mom never submitted to Maryland’s jurisdiction because she never filed an answer in Maryland, but Dad submitted to California’s jurisdiction when he filed an answer in California.

* An unreported opinion by Maryland’s intermediate appellate court is published on the Court’s website, but may not be cited in any paper, brief, motion, or other document filed in any Maryland court, as either precedent within the rule of stare decisis or as persuasive authority. Md. Rule 1-104. However, unreported opinions do offer insight into issues addressed by that court.

A court’s contempt order must have teeth to be enforceable.

By Vincent M. Wills

Contempt orders – orders issued by a court to force a person to comply with a prior court order – must contain a sanction and a purge provision to be enforceable. Dolet v. Martin, a recent unreported* decision of Maryland’s intermediate appellate court, holds that to be valid a court’s contempt order must contain a sanction and a provision that allows the person in contempt to purge the contempt.

Mr. Dolet (“Husband”) and Ms. Martin (“Wife”) entered into a separation agreement that was incorporated into their judgment of absolute divorce. By incorporating the agreement into the Judgment of Absolute Divorce, the court obtained the ability to enforce the agreement with its contempt powers. The parties agreed that the Husband would be the owner of property located in Bowie, Maryland. However, the parties also agreed that if the Husband vacated the property he would transfer the property to the Wife. When the Husband vacated the property, he refused to transfer the property to the Wife. In response, the Wife filed a motion for contempt, asking the court to order the Husband to deed the property to her. During the hearing on her motion for contempt, the Wife argued that the Husband was in contempt of court for failing to deed the property to her as required by the divorce decree.

Contempt is an inherent power of a court to enforce compliance with its orders. There are two classifications of contempt – civil and criminal. The purpose of civil contempt is to coerce present or future compliance with a court order. A civil contempt proceeding is used to enforce the rights of a private party to a case and to compel obedience to orders made to benefit such party. In contrast, criminal contempt is used to punish someone for past misconduct or disobedience to a court order.

Contempt may be direct or constructive. A direct contempt is something that occurs in the presence of the court and affects the proper functioning of the court. For example, saying something derogatory to a judge or flipping an inappropriate hand gesture to the judge are examples of direct contempt. In contrast, a constructive contempt occurs outside the presence of the court. For

example, failing to pay court-ordered child support is an example of constructive contempt.

Because civil contempt is used to force a party to obey a court order and not for punishment, it is remedial in nature. As a result, the sanction or penalty in a civil contempt must provide for purging. A purge provision is some action or monetary payment that a party is required to take or make in order to undo the finding of contempt. A purge provision has been described as having “the keys to the prison in his or her pocket.” Except for child support cases, before a court can make a finding of contempt, the person subject to contempt must have the present ability to comply with the purge provision.

Since the penalty imposed in a criminal contempt is intended as punishment, it does not have to provide for purging. If there is no purge provision to enforce compliance, the court is limited to using criminal contempt.

In Dolet v. Martin, the trial judge found the Husband to be in civil contempt. The judge stated that the Wife was entitled to any relief awarded by the court in a separate breach of contract suit that she also filed against the Husband. The Order did not contain a sanction, nor did it contain any provision that would allow the Husband to purge himself of the contempt.

On appeal, the Maryland Court of Special Appeals decided that the trial court’s civil contempt order was invalid, because it did not contain a sanction, nor did it contain a purge provision.

* An “unreported” opinion by Maryland’s intermediate appellate court is published on the Court’s website, but may not be cited in any paper, brief, motion, or other document filed in any Maryland court, as either precedent within the rule of stare decisis or as persuasive authority. Md. Rule 1-104. However, unreported opinions do offer insight into issues addressed by that court.