NOTICE: None of these questions and answers constitute legal advice. To obtain legal advice, consult with an attorney. This is especially important in divorce and family law matters, in which outcomes are often peculiar to the particular facts and circumstances of the case.
Equal division is not required, although that is the outcome in many cases.
No. Maryland is not a “community property” state. Maryland has an “equitable distribution” statute. Labels are not important. Read more FAQs to find out how Maryland courts handle property.
A court may not require one spouse to pay the sole obligation of the other, or to satisfy joint obligations of the parties such as mortgages and taxes on real property, or to pay the interest on joint promissory notes. However, if one parent gets use and possession of a house or car, for example, the other parent can be forced to contribute to the mortgage or car payment.
Marital property is: (a) Real property held as tenants by the entirety, unless excluded by valid agreement. (b) Any property acquired by one or both parties during marriage, and does not include any property: (1) acquired before the marriage, (2) acquired by inheritance or gift from a third party, (3) excluded by valid agreement, or (4) directly traceable to any of these sources.
Maryland courts have defined the term “acquired” as the ongoing process of making payment for property. Under this definition, characterization of property as non-marital or marital depends upon the source of each contribution as payments are made, rather than the time at which legal or equitable title to or possession of the property is obtained. So, for example, a house that had been acquired by one spouse and subject to a mortgage prior to a marriage, is initially wholly non-marital property; as mortgage payments are made out of marital funds during the marriage, the property becomes partially marital.
“Directly traceable” is not synonymous with “attributable.” When marital and non-marital funds are commingled, no specific sum of money used to acquire property or reduce indebtedness on any property can be directly traced to any source. This inability to trace property acquired during the marriage directly to a non-marital source simply means that all property so acquired is marital property.
Dissipation may be found where one spouse uses marital property for his or her own benefit for a purpose unrelated to the marriage at a time where the marriage is undergoing an irreconcilable breakdown. When a court finds that property was dissipated to the point of being a fraud on marital rights, it should consider the dissipated property as extant to be valued with other existing marital property.
Characterization as marital or non-marital property disregards title, except real property held as tenants by the entirety, which is deemed marital. The court may order the sale of jointly titled real or personal property, and division of the proceeds but the court cannot transfer title ownership of property, except for pension, retirement, profit sharing or deferred compensation.
Can one spouse be forced to sell or transfer a house or other property to the other?
Yes. A Maryland court may transfer ownership of an interest in a jointly owned house that was used as the principal residence of the parties from one party to the other, subject to the terms of any lien, or authorize one party to purchase the residence from the other on court-ordered terms. In addition, a Maryland court may order transfer of a vehicle, that was acquired during the marriage, is owned by one of the parties, and was used primarily for family purposes, as well as other family use personal property from one or both spouses to one spouse, subject to the consent of any lien holders.
A monetary award is an adjustment of the equities and rights of the parties concerning marital property. In other words, it is what a court orders one spouse to pay the other spouse so that what each takes from the marriage is fair under all the circumstances of the case.
Maryland courts apply a three-step process: (1) Determine what property is marital property. (2) Determine the value of all marital property. (3) Make a monetary award as an adjustment of the equities and rights of the parties.
Here is a list of some of the factors: (1) contributions, both monetary and nonmonetary, of each party to the well-being of the family; (2) the value of all property interests of each party; (3) economic circumstances of each party at time of award; (4) circumstances that contributed to estrangement of parties; (5) duration of marriage; (6) age of each party; (7) physical and mental condition of each party; (8) how and when specific assets were acquired, and efforts expended by each in accumulating marital property; (9) alimony award and use and possession award; (10) non-marital contribution to real property held as tenants by the entirety; (11) any other factor deemed necessary or appropriate.
Maryland courts have said that alimony and a monetary award are “significantly interrelated and largely inseparable,” but that a monetary award is not a “form of nor substitute for” alimony. In other words, the court must consider the two issues together in order to achieve a fair result.
Nothing, usually. The owner of non-marital property keeps it. However, in considering a monetary award, and in deciding on alimony, a Maryland court must consider all the financial circumstances and resources of each of the parties, including any non-marital property. If a judgment is entered against someone for a monetary award, nothing prohibits the party entitled to the judgment from going after non-marital property to collect it.
A “marital debt” is a debt that is directly traceable to the acquisition of marital property.
A spouse with custody of a minor child of the parties can be awarded use and possession of a family home, car, furnishings, and home appliances. In making an award, the court considers the best interests of the child, the interests of each party in continued use of the property as a dwelling place or to provide income, and the hardship, if any, on the party whose interest would be infringed.
Use and possession must terminate no later than three years after a divorce is granted.
Yes. The court can allocate financial responsibilities over property, which is the subject of a use and possession award, including (1) mortgage or rent, (2) indebtedness related to property, and (3) maintenance and other expenses of property.